Cerca QUI

Nasa to hack Mars rover Opportunity to fix 'amnesia' fault

Mars rover Opportunity
"Where am I?" - the Mars rover Opportunity keeps wiping its own data

Mars rover Opportunity, which has been exploring the Red Planet for more than 10 years, is suffering from memory problems, Nasa has said.
The six-wheeled vehicle - not to be confused with Curiosity, which launched in 2011 - keeps resetting unexpectedly.
The Opportunity team thinks an age-related fault affecting the flash memory used by the robot is to blame.
It believes it has found a way to hack the rover's software to disregard the faulty part.
Speaking to Discovery News, Nasa project manager John Callas outlined how his team intended to solve the issue.
'It forgets'
He explained how the rover, like a typical computer, has two key types of memory - volatile and non-volatile.
  • Non-volatile memory "remembers" its information even if it is powered down, making it ideal for long-term storage, similar to how a hard drive works on a PC
  • Volatile memory - comparable to a PC's random access memory, or RAM - is quicker to access but requires power, so when the machine turns off, any data stored within the volatile memory is lost
Image from Mars rover Opportunity
The rover can still operate with the memory fault, but Nasa is keen to fix the problem
The problem with Opportunity is that its non-volatile memory is suffering from a fault, probably related to the hardware's age.
It means that when the rover tries to save telemetry data to the flash memory it fails, and so it then writes it to the volatile memory instead. When the rover powers down, the information is then wiped.
"So now we're having these events we call 'amnesia,'," explained Mr Callas in Discovery News.
"Which is the rover trying to use the flash memory, but it wasn't able to, so instead it uses the RAM... it stores telemetry data in that volatile memory, but when the rover goes to sleep and wakes up again, all [the data] is gone.
"So that's why we call it amnesia - it forgets what it has done."
Old rover
The problems are becoming more severe, Nasa says, with the memory issue causing the rover reset itself, and in some cases stop communicating with mission control altogether.
In an attempt to solve the problem, the Nasa team is attempting to "hack" the rover's software so that it ignores the faulty part of its flash memory, and instead writes, permanently, to the healthy hardware.
Image from Mars rover Opportunity
Opportunity has lasted on Mars far longer than Nasa ever anticipated
The process will take a couple of weeks, Mr Callas told Discovery News. However, he added that Opportunity is ageing and could be heading towards the end of its useful life.
"It's like you have an aging parent, that is otherwise in good health - maybe they go for a little jog every day, play tennis each day - but you never know, they could have a massive stroke right in the middle of the nigh," he said.
"So we're always cautious that something could happen."
Even if the rover fails now, it will have comfortably exceeded the initial goal of spending three months on the Red Planet.
Ten years after it first landed, Opportunity has covered 26 miles (41.8km) of the Mars surface, and sent back vital intelligence about the planet's biological make-up.

16 Mal Neujahr auf der ISS

16 Mal Neujahr auf der ISS

Mit einer Geschwindigkeit von gut acht Kilometern pro Sekunde überquere die ISS in der Silvesternacht insgesamt 16 Zeitzonen.

Moskau (dpa) - Gleich 16 Mal können die Astronauten der Internationalen Raumstation ISS auf das neue Jahr anstoßen. Mit einer Geschwindigkeit von gut acht Kilometern pro Sekunde überquere die ISS in der Silvesternacht insgesamt 16 Zeitzonen, berichtete die russische Staatszeitung «Rossijskaja Gaseta» am Mittwoch. Das erste Mal passierten die Astronauten die Datumsgrenze über Neuseeland, zum Abschluss dürften sie sich über dem Pazifik befinden, hieß es.
Sektkorken werden aber nicht knallen, denn Alkohol ist verboten auf der ISS. Stattdessen stößt die Besatzung mit Saft an. Ob sich die Astronauten wirklich 16 Mal zuprosten, blieb jedoch unklar. Im vergangenen Jahr stieß die Besatzung dreimal an. Auf dem Außenposten der Menschheit in gut 400 Kilometern Höhe über der Erde arbeiten derzeit drei Russen, zwei US-Amerikaner und eine Italienerin.

CSETI - LIST OF POSSIBLE UFO/ET CRAFT CRASHES AND RETRIEVALS IN ITALY - with translation

1)On December 13, 1884 a shining body came down from the sky crashing onto a field in Sorisole, near Bergamo. That was the first known case of a series of possibly UFO accidents in Italy.

1)Il 13 dicembre 1884 il corpo splendente scese dal cielo schiantarsi su un campo a Sorisole, vicino a Bergamo. Questo è stato il primo caso noto di una serie di incidenti possibilmente UFO in Italia.

2)As for the four entity retrievals, they are all just rumours and refer to: a little green man capture in Puglia in 1910/15; six aliens capture by the Italian Army north of Rome in 1959; an undated capture by the Fire Brigade in Veneto; and an alleged autopsy of alien bodies in a USAF base near Savona, following a UFO shot down in 1974.

2)Per quanto riguarda i quattro recuperi entità, sono tutti solo voci e si riferiscono a: un piccolo uomo verde cattura in Puglia nel 1910-1915; sei alieni cattura da parte dell'esercito nord di Roma italiana nel 1959; una cattura non datato dai Vigili del Fuoco in Veneto; e una presunta autopsia di corpi alieni in una base USAF nei pressi di Savona, a seguito di un UFO abbattuto nel 1974.

3)Attached are copies of what are purported to be official Italian documents which I am told describe a UFO crash/retrieval in 1933 in Italy during the Fascist Regime. These documents were forwarded to me by Massimo Ferrante who directs the group "Italian Center Studies UFO Phenomenons - Odissea 2001" in response to some information I uncovered about a similar UFO crash/retrieval in 1937 in NAZI Germany. If these alleged 1933 documents written in Italian are real and both Mussollini's and Hilter's scientists and engineers had direct access to advanced alien technology in the pre-WWII years, together they could rule the world...

3)In allegato sono copie di ciò che sono preteso di essere documenti ufficiali italiani che mi hanno detto descrivono un UFO crash / recupero nel 1933 in Italia durante il regime fascista. Tali documenti sono stati trasmessi a me da Massimo Ferrante, che dirige il gruppo "Centro Italiano Studi Ufologici Fenomeni - Odissea 2001" in risposta ad alcune informazioni che ho scoperto su un simile UFO crash / recupero nel 1937 in Germania NAZISTA. Se questi presunti 1.933 documenti scritti in lingua italiana sono reali e gli scienziati e gli ingegneri sia di Mussollini e Hilter del avuto accesso diretto a tecnologia avanzata aliena negli anni pre-seconda guerra mondiale, insieme avrebbero potuto governare il mondo ...

4)July 1993 Details are still coming in, but the following photos of an alleged ET were reported to have been taken with a Polaroid after a craft had been shot down by the Italian Air Force. If appearances are to be believed, it could have its fingers and toes burnt off and part of its flight suit melted onto it.

alien1a.jpg (27217 bytes)

alien2a.jpg (26498 bytes)

alien3a.jpg (34742 bytes)

This is supposed to be a different entity than the first two pictures, which are the same creature.

4)Luglio 1993 I dettagli sono ancora arrivando, ma sono stati segnalati sia stata scattata con una Polaroid, dopo un mestiere era stato abbattuto dalla Aeronautica Militare Italiana le seguenti foto di un presunto ET. Se le apparenze si deve credere, potrebbe avere le sue dita delle mani e dei piedi bruciati e parte della sua tuta di volo fuso su di esso.

alien1a.jpg (27217 bytes)

alien2a.jpg (26498 bytes)

alien3a.jpg (34742 bytes)

Questo dovrebbe essere un soggetto diverso rispetto alle prime due immagini, che sono la stessa creatura.

5)In search of a mystery craft fallen onto a mountain in Molise
by Renzo Cabassi
Two different news reports in early March, 1994 alerted those CISU members active in Project Aircat (collection and analysis of Italian UFO reports by pilots). Both reported events took place on March 6th in the province of Campobasso. At 16.30 two men were flying an ultra-light aircraft Zenair 70 at 200/250 feet above Termoli, at a speed of about 80 mph when they noticed a small sphere reflecting the setting sun light and moving on a north horizontal path at about the same altitude as theirs, seemingly 6 kms away. The mystery object suddenly disappeared after 5 or 6 seconds.
On the following day the local newspapers Il Tempo reported that a mystery craft had crashed on Mount Mutria that same afternoon, around 4 p.m. and that research teams were still looking for it. But nothing was allegedly found, according to later news items.
We launched an investigation, at first by phone calling and letter writing to local witnesses, journalists and authorities, since weather conditions prevented us from a direct on place expedition among the snow mountains at 1,800 meters above the sea. What we were told was more intriguing than what expected: helicopters over the area in the night (well before the official arrival of the one who found nothing on the following morning); the whole area cordoned off by a very heavy police and military activity. Locals rumoured a sort of plane had crashed, and authorities had it secretly retrieved at night.
We waited impatiently till Renzo Cabassi and Roberto Raffaelli could organize a field investigation, on May 28, in order to directly interview the witnesses on the place.
"A PLANE HAS CRASHED"
The main one was 18 years old Angelo Giambattista: between 2 and 2.20 p.m. of that Sunday afternoon he was to get home in Guardiaregia (730 mt. above the sea, facing Mount Mutria) when he saw a dark object flying from east and seemingly landing onto the mountain, or better bouncing on the snow and stopping as a black spot. He called his father, 45 years old Franco Giambattista, a policeman and a former airman, telling him a plane had fallen. Franco runned out and could easily see two dark shadows on the snow in a ravine about 100 meters below the mountain top (1823 m.). Through his binocular he clearly distinguish an oval shape with swept snow all around and, 20 or 30 meters lower, a 3 to 4 meters long black "aeronautical fuselage" with a vertical flag and a row of small portholes around.
He called the emergency number and at 4 p.m. an officer of Carabinieri (military police) arrived and could see the craft. The air accident alarm took another 90 minutes before the area was cordoned off by Police and Carabinieri, and a Civil Protection team arrived, formed by Alpine Rescue volunteers. The fire brigade placed a powerful light beam, while at 8 p.m. eight volunteers began climbing the wooded mountain in the dark. According to at least four witnesses we interviewed, at the same hour no less than three helicopters were hovering near the impact spot. Unverified rumours even told of two copters having retrieved a... missile!
At their second attempt, the volunteers got to the mountain top by 1 a.m., and two of them began descending into the ravine, with precise instructions by Carabinieri not to get close to anything they might find, but only report by radio. People down at Guardiaregia could see their light beacons in the right place, but they could neither find or see anything unusual, not even broken branches of snow traces. They only reported briefly seeing like a fable flame. The volunteers remained up there until dawn, when a Fire Brigade helicopter rescued them and flew with them all over the area, finding nothing at all. People down at Guardiaregia, including Franco Giambattista, could no longer see any dark shape on the snow.
ON THE FIELD
On our second trip to Guardiaregia, on July 9, we could once again interview local residents (except young Angelo, who wants not to talk any more about it, after having been interrogated by Carabinieri) and suddenly realized at least 15 of them had been gazing for hours to the wrong area on the mountain, watching nothing but an odd, big stone curiously similar to a plane.
On the following morning Renzo Cabassi and Roberto Raffaelli were taken on the mountain top by the same Civil Protection rescue team, in bad weather conditions (a few meters of visibility, strong wind, winter cold). Raffaelli and the same two rescue members of that night finally descended down into the ravine, getting nothing more than a lot of photos.

5)Due diversi rapporti di notizie ai primi di marzo 1994 allertato i membri CISU attivi in ​​Project Aircat (raccolta e analisi della lingua italiana rapporti UFO da parte dei piloti). Both reported events took place on March 6th in the province of Campobasso. Entrambi gli eventi hanno avuto luogo il 6 marzo nella provincia di Campobasso. At 16.30 two men were flying an ultra-light aircraft Zenair 70 at 200/250 feet above Termoli, at a speed of about 80 mph when they noticed a small sphere reflecting the setting sun light and moving on a north horizontal path at about the same altitude as theirs, seemingly 6 kms away. Alle 16.30 due uomini stavano volando un aereo ultraleggero Zenair 70 a 200/250 metri sopra Termoli, ad una velocità di circa 80 mph quando hanno notato una piccola sfera che riflette la luce sole al tramonto e si muove su un percorso orizzontale a nord a circa lo stesso altitudine come loro, apparentemente 6 km di distanza. The mystery object suddenly disappeared after 5 or 6 seconds. L'oggetto mistero improvvisamente scomparso dopo 5 o 6 secondi.
On the following day the local newspapers Il Tempo reported that a mystery craft had crashed on Mount Mutria that same afternoon, around 4 pm and that research teams were still looking for it. Il giorno seguente i giornali locali Il Tempo riferito che un mestiere mistero si era schiantato sul monte Mutria quello stesso pomeriggio, intorno alle 4 e che i gruppi di ricerca erano ancora alla ricerca di esso. But nothing was allegedly found, according to later news items. Ma nulla sarebbe stato trovato, secondo notizie successive.
We launched an investigation, at first by phone calling and letter writing to local witnesses, journalists and authorities, since weather conditions prevented us from a direct on place expedition among the snow mountains at 1,800 meters above the sea. Abbiamo lanciato un'indagine, in un primo momento chiamando il telefono e la lettera scrivendo a testimoni locali, giornalisti e autorità, dal momento che le condizioni meteo ci hanno impedito di un diretto sul posto spedizione tra le montagne di neve a 1.800 metri sopra il mare. What we were told was more intriguing than what expected: helicopters over the area in the night (well before the official arrival of the one who found nothing on the following morning); Quello che ci hanno detto che era più intrigante di quanto previsto: elicotteri sopra la zona notte (ben prima dell'arrivo ufficiale di colui che ha trovato nulla la mattina seguente); the whole area cordoned off by a very heavy police and military activity. l'intera area transennata da una molto pesante della polizia e l'attività militare. Locals rumoured a sort of plane had crashed, and authorities had it secretly retrieved at night. La gente del posto vocifera una sorta di aereo era precipitato, e le autorità avevano segretamente recuperato di notte.
We waited impatiently till Renzo Cabassi and Roberto Raffaelli could organize a field investigation, on May 28, in order to directly interview the witnesses on the place. Abbiamo aspettato con impazienza fino Renzo Cabassi e Roberto Raffaelli potrebbe organizzare una indagine sul campo, il 28 maggio, al fine di interrogare direttamente i testimoni sul posto.
"A PLANE HAS CRASHED" "Un aereo si è schiantato"
The main one was 18 years old Angelo Giambattista: between 2 and 2.20 pm of that Sunday afternoon he was to get home in Guardiaregia (730 mt. above the sea, facing Mount Mutria) when he saw a dark object flying from east and seemingly landing onto the mountain, or better bouncing on the snow and stopping as a black spot. Il principale era 18 anni Angelo Giambattista: (. 730 mt sul livello del mare, di fronte il Monte Mutria) tra 2 e 14:20 di Domenica pomeriggio che doveva tornare a casa a Guardiaregia quando vide un oggetto scuro che volano da est e apparentemente atterraggio sulla montagna, o meglio rimbalzare sulla neve e l'arresto come una macchia nera. He called his father, 45 years old Franco Giambattista, a policeman and a former airman, telling him a plane had fallen. Ha chiamato suo padre, 45 anni Franco Giambattista, un poliziotto e un ex aviatore, dicendogli un aereo era caduto. Franco runned out and could easily see two dark shadows on the snow in a ravine about 100 meters below the mountain top (1823 m.). Franco gestito direttamente fuori e potrebbe facilmente vedere due ombre scure sulla neve in un burrone a circa 100 metri sotto la cima della montagna (1823 m.). Through his binocular he clearly distinguish an oval shape with swept snow all around and, 20 or 30 meters lower, a 3 to 4 meters long black "aeronautical fuselage" with a vertical flag and a row of small portholes around. Attraverso il suo binocolo si distingue chiaramente una forma ovale con la neve spazzata tutto intorno e, a 20 o 30 metri più basso, lungo da 3 a 4 metri nera "di fusoliera aeronautica" con una bandiera verticale e una fila di piccoli oblò intorno.
He called the emergency number and at 4 pm an officer of Carabinieri (military police) arrived and could see the craft. Ha chiamato il numero di emergenza e alle 4 del pomeriggio un ufficiale di Carabinieri (polizia militare) è arrivato e poteva vedere il mestiere. The air accident alarm took another 90 minutes before the area was cordoned off by Police and Carabinieri, and a Civil Protection team arrived, formed by Alpine Rescue volunteers. L'allarme incidente aereo ha preso altri 90 minuti prima che l'area è stata transennata da Polizia e Carabinieri, e una squadra della Protezione Civile è arrivata, formata da volontari del Soccorso Alpino. The fire brigade placed a powerful light beam, while at 8 pm eight volunteers began climbing the wooded mountain in the dark. I vigili del fuoco collocato un fascio di luce potente, mentre alle 08:00 otto volontari hanno iniziato a scalare la montagna boscosa nel buio. According to at least four witnesses we interviewed, at the same hour no less than three helicopters were hovering near the impact spot. Secondo almeno quattro testimoni che abbiamo intervistato, alla stessa ora, non meno di tre elicotteri volteggiavano vicino al punto di impatto. Unverified rumours even told of two copters having retrieved a... missile! Voci non verificate anche raccontato di due elicotteri aver recuperato un ... missile!
At their second attempt, the volunteers got to the mountain top by 1 am, and two of them began descending into the ravine, with precise instructions by Carabinieri not to get close to anything they might find, but only report by radio. Al loro secondo tentativo, i volontari arrivati ​​in cima alla montagna da 1 del mattino, e due di loro cominciarono a scendere nel burrone, con istruzioni precise da parte dei Carabinieri non avvicinarsi a tutto ciò che potrebbero trovare, ma segnala solo via radio. People down at Guardiaregia could see their light beacons in the right place, but they could neither find or see anything unusual, not even broken branches of snow traces. La gente giù a Guardiaregia potevano vedere i loro fari di luce nel posto giusto, ma essi non riuscivano a trovare o vedere qualcosa di insolito, non anche rotto rami di tracce di neve. They only reported briefly seeing like a fable flame. Hanno riferito solo brevemente visto come una fiamma favola. The volunteers remained up there until dawn, when a Fire Brigade helicopter rescued them and flew with them all over the area, finding nothing at all. I volontari sono rimasti lì fino all'alba, quando un elicottero dei Vigili del Fuoco li liberò e volò con loro tutta l'area, trovando niente di niente. People down at Guardiaregia, including Franco Giambattista, could no longer see any dark shape on the snow. La gente giù a Guardiaregia, tra cui Franco Giambattista, non potevano più vedere alcuna sagoma scura sulla neve.
ON THE FIELD SUL CAMPO
On our second trip to Guardiaregia, on July 9, we could once again interview local residents (except young Angelo, who wants not to talk any more about it, after having been interrogated by Carabinieri) and suddenly realized at least 15 of them had been gazing for hours to the wrong area on the mountain, watching nothing but an odd, big stone curiously similar to a plane. Per il nostro secondo viaggio a Guardiaregia, il 9 luglio, potremmo ancora una volta intervistare i residenti locali (tranne giovane Angelo, che non vuole parlare più su di esso, dopo essere stato interrogato dai carabinieri) e improvvisamente si rese conto almeno 15 di loro erano stati guardare per ore alla zona sbagliata sulla montagna, guardando nient'altro che una strana, grande pietra curiosamente simile ad un aereo.
On the following morning Renzo Cabassi and Roberto Raffaelli were taken on the mountain top by the same Civil Protection rescue team, in bad weather conditions (a few meters of visibility, strong wind, winter cold). La mattina seguente Renzo Cabassi e Roberto Raffaelli sono state prese sulla cima della montagna dalla stessa squadra di soccorso della protezione civile, in caso di maltempo (a pochi metri di visibilità, vento forte, freddo inverno). Raffaelli and the same two rescue members of that night finally descended down into the ravine, getting nothing more than a lot of photos. Raffaelli e gli stessi due membri di soccorso di quella notte finalmente scese giù nel burrone, ottenendo nient'altro che un sacco di foto.

O fim da sua religião e a descoberta de vida alienígena

et religiao

Apesar de muitas teorias absolutamente convincentes para explicar o Paradoxo de Fermi e o grande silêncio que vivenciamos até agora com relação à vida extraterrestre, alguns, como David A. Weintraub, da Universidade de Vanderbilt (em Tennessee, nos Estados Unidos), acreditam que a prova de que a vida existe fora da Terra está finalmente chegando.

E aí vem aquela pergunta que não quer calar: como a humanidade vai reagir depois que os astrônomos nos mostrarem evidências científicas e sólidas para a existência de vida extraterrestre?
Quando os cientistas anunciarem essa descoberta, só temos uma certeza: tudo vai mudar. E nossas filosofias e religiões terão que incorporar essas novas informações.

A busca por sinais de vida lá fora

Os astrônomos já identificaram milhares de planetas que orbitam em torno de outras estrelas. No ritmo atual de descobertas, a expectativa é que outros milhões de planetas sejam encontrados ainda neste século.
Já tendo encontrado os planetas físicos, os astrônomos estão agora à procura de nossos vizinhos biológicos. Isso significa que ao longo dos próximos 50 anos, eles irão começar o tentador estudo detalhado de milhões de planetas à procura de evidências da presença de vida na superfície, no subterrâneo ou nas atmosferas desses planetas.
E é muito provável que encontrem o que estão procurando.
Lá nos Estados Unidos foi feito um levantamento e mais de um terço dos entrevistados disseram acreditar que os extraterrestres já visitaram a Terra, sem a gente saber. Tipo de visita que vem sem ser convidada e sai sem dar tchau. Acreditamos que essa proporção não fuja muito disso a nível mundial. Mas, apesar desse “achismo” de senso comum, a primeira evidência de vida além de nosso planeta provavelmente não contará com sinais de rádio, ou com homenzinhos verdes chegando pelo céu com discos voadores metálicos.
Em vez disso, um Galileu do século 21, usando um enorme telescópio de 50 metros de diâmetro, vai coletar a luz das atmosferas de planetas distantes, procurando as assinaturas de moléculas biologicamente significativas. Algo que não tem exatamente um grande potencial para virar filme de Hollywood.
O que os astrônomos fazem é filtrar a luz de longe através de espectrômetros, que são prismas de alta tecnologia que provocam a luz distante em seus muitos comprimentos de onda distintos. Eles fazem isso à procura por impressões digitais reveladoras de moléculas que não existiriam em abundância nesses ambientes, na ausência de coisas vivas. Os dados espectroscópicos, então, dirão se o ambiente de um planeta foi alterado de forma que apontam para processos biológicos.

Qual é o nosso lugar no universo? Se não estamos sozinhos, quem somos nós?

Com a descoberta de um planeta distante no espectro de luz, com uma substância química que só poderia ser produzida por seres vivos, a humanidade vai ter a oportunidade de ler uma página nova no livro do conhecimento. Nós não ficaremos mais especulando sobre se outros seres existem no universo. Nós saberemos de uma vez por todas que não estamos sozinhos.
Dá um frio na barriga só de pensar.
Afinal, uma resposta afirmativa à pergunta “a vida existe em nenhum outro lugar no universo além da Terra?” levantaria questões imediatas e profundamente importantes, tanto para as ciências quanto para a filosofia e teologia, sobre o nosso lugar no universo. Se os seres extraterrestres realmente existirem, isso significará que a minha religião, minhas crenças e práticas religiosas não podem mesmo ser universais.
Se a minha religião não é universalmente aplicável a todos os outros extraterrestres, talvez ela não precise ser oferecida, nem muito menos forçada, a todos os outros terrestres. Em última análise, podemos aprender algumas lições importantes aplicáveis aqui em casa, só pelo fato de considerar a possibilidade de vida fora do nosso planeta.
David Weintraub investigou os escritos sagrados das religiões mais amplamente praticadas do mundo, perguntando o que cada religião tem a dizer sobre a exclusividade ou não singularidade da vida na Terra, e como, ou se, uma religião em particular iria funcionar em outros planetas em partes distantes do universo. É o tipo de pergunta que faz o cérebro de qualquer um ferver!

Os extraterrestres poderiam ser cristãos?

Vamos examinar uma questão teológica aparentemente simples, mas extremamente complexa: os extraterrestres poderiam ser cristãos? Se Jesus morreu para redimir a humanidade do estado de pecadores no qual os humanos nascem, a morte e a ressurreição de Jesus, na Terra, também iria salvar seres extraterrestres de todos os seus pecados?
Se for assim, por que os extraterrestres seriam pecadores? O pecado é item de série no próprio tecido de espaço e tempo do universo? Ou a vida pode existir em partes do universo sem estar em um estado de pecado e, portanto, sem a necessidade de redenção e, portanto, sem a necessidade do cristianismo?
Muitas soluções diferentes para estes enigmas que envolvem a teologia cristã foram apresentadas na pesquisa de Weintraub. Mas a verdade é que nenhuma delas satisfaz a todos os cristãos do mundo.

O mundos dos Mórmons

A Escritura Mórmon ensina claramente que existem outros mundos habitados e que “os seus habitantes são filhos e filhas gerados para Deus” (Doutrinas e Convênios 76:24). A Terra, porém, é um mundo favorecido no mormonismo, porque Jesus, como entendido pelos mórmons, viveu e foi ressuscitado só na Terra.
Além disso, diz também que os mórmons só podem alcançar seus próprios objetivos espirituais durante as suas vidas na Terra, e não em vidas em outros mundos. Assim, para os mórmons, a Terra pode até não ser o centro físico do universo, mas é o lugar mais favorecido dele. Tal visão implica que todos os outros mundos são, de alguma forma, mundos menores do que a Terra.

Há anos-luz de Meca

Os pilares da fé para os muçulmanos exigem que os fiéis rezem cinco vezes por dia, virados para a direção de Meca. Como determinar a direção certa de Meca pode ser extremamente difícil em um planeta que fica há milhões de anos-luz da Terra, praticar a mesma fé em um outro mundo pode não fazer nenhum sentido.
No entanto, as palavras do Alcorão nos dizem que “quaisquer que sejam os seres, nos céus e na terra, devem adorar a Allah” (13:15). Mas poderiam os muçulmanos terrestres aceitar que a religião profeticamente revelada de Muhammad é destinada apenas para os seres humanos na Terra e que outros mundos têm os seus próprios profetas?

Astrônomos são destruidores de paradigmas

Em certos momentos ao longo da história, as descobertas dos astrônomos têm exercido uma enorme influência sobre a cultura humana. Os gregos antigos astrônomos, por exemplo, desachataram a Terra – embora muitos deles resolveram esquecer esse conhecimento.
Da escola da Renascença, os estudiosos Copérnico e Galileu colocaram a Terra em movimento em torno do sol e tiraram os seres humanos do centro do universo.
No século 20, Edwin Hubble eliminou a própria ideia de que o universo tem qualquer coisa que se pareça com um centro. Ele demonstrou que o universo tem um começo no tempo e que, curiosamente, tem um tecido tridimensional, em constante expansão.
Claramente, quando os astrônomos chegam com novas ideias ousadas para o mundo, eles não brincam em serviço. Outra nova ideia tão demolidora de paradigma pode estar na luz que chega a nossos telescópios agora.
Não importa quão religioso ou não você seja. Em um futuro muito próximo, todos estaremos nos fazendo perguntas como “o meu Deus é o Deus de todo o universo? Minha religião é terrestre ou universal?”.
Muitas pessoas terão que trabalhar para conciliar a descoberta de vida extraterrestre com suas respectivas religiões, adaptando-se a essa notícia que promete ser bombástica.[science20]

'Life detector’ senses alien movement

Miami - European researchers said on Monday they have devised the first tiny motion detector that could help find microscopic life forms on distant planets. 
Copy of Alien Planets [1]
File photo: Until now, scientists have tried to find signs of extraterrestrial
life by listening for sounds that might be emitted from an alien world, by scanning
the skies with potent telescopes and by sending robotic probes and rovers to analyze
the chemical fingerprint of samples from comets and planets.

Until now, scientists have tried to find signs of extraterrestrial life by listening for sounds that might be emitted from an alien world, by scanning the skies with potent telescopes and by sending robotic probes and rovers to analyse the chemical fingerprint of samples from comets and planets.
But researchers in Switzerland and Belgium were interested in a new method. Taking advantage of movement, which they call “a universal signature of life,” they would aim to sense on a nanolevel the tiny motions that all life forms make.
They began to explore the possibility of searching for life with a sensor attuned to those nanoscale vibrations in microscopic organisms such as bacteria and yeast.
“The nanomotion detector allows studying life from a new perspective: life is movement,” said Giovanni Longo, lead author of the paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a peer-reviewed US journal.
“This means that the nanomotion detector can detect any small movement of living systems and deliver a complementary point of view in the search for life,” he told AFP via email from Switzerland.
Longo, a scientist at the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, and colleagues at Vlaams Instituut voor Biotechnologie in Belgium devised an instrument that is smaller than a millimetre - just a few hundred microns in length - that can sense the smallest nanoscale movements.
They tested it on a variety of living things, including E coli, yeast, as well as human, plant and mice cells in the lab.
In all cases, when living organisms were placed near the sensor, they “produced an increase in the amplitude of the measured fluctuations,” said the study.
Longo and colleagues also scooped up soil and water from the grounds near their Swiss lab and found that the sensor could detect tiny life there, too.
Researchers found they could manipulate the movements of the life forms by adding nutrients which the cells would consume, or adding chemicals that would kill them, making the motion stop.
“The detection system can be used as a simple, extremely sensitive, and weight-efficient 'life detector,'“ the study said.
Longo said a prototype would cost less than $10 000 (about R100 000), would use very little battery power and could be contained in a 20 by 20 centimetre box.
The device has not been presented yet to Nasa or the European Space Agency, but efforts are under way to write a proposal and make a prototype that could travel to space on a robotic vessel or orbiter that is hunting for extraterrestrial life, Longo said.
If it had been available to the ESA's Rosetta mission, which recently sent its Philae lander onto a comet for the first time and detected water and possible signatures of life in the form of complex carbon, it could have propelled the science one step further, “determining if these conditions are still harbouring life, in any form,” Longo said.
If the world's space agencies find a way to use it, the detector could be used to search for life on the moons of Jupiter or Saturn, or on Mars, where it might help scientists recognise life exists in a form that they had not previously expected or understood.
The sensor could also be used to detect extreme life forms in areas that are hard to measure on Earth, such as volcanoes and the ocean floor, he said.
However, it could be years before the sensor is actually tested in space.
“It is rare that anything is 'simple' in the context of space exploration,” said Ariel Anbar, a professor in the School of Earth and Space Exploration and the department of chemistry and biochemistry at Arizona State University.
Nonetheless, Anbar, who was not involved in the study, described the work as “refreshing” and a “fundamentally new idea.”
“Motion-detection on such a scale has never been attempted before as an extraterrestrial life detection approach,” he told AFP.
“If it is as technologically simple to implement as the authors claim, then it could be worth integrating into future mission concepts.” - Sapa-AFP

2015: NASA’s Year of the Dwarf Planet


Two spacecraft, Dawn and New Horizons, will reach their final objectives in 2015 – Dwarf Planets Ceres and Pluto, respectively. (Credit: NASA, Illustration – T.Reyes)
Together, the space probes Dawn and New Horizons have been in flight for a collective 17 years. One remained close to home and the other departed to parts of the Solar System of which little is known. They now share a common destination in the same year: dwarf planets.
At the time of these NASA probes’ departures, Ceres had just lost its designation as the largest asteroid in our Solar System. Pluto was the ninth planet. Both probes now stand to deliver measures of new data and insight that could spearhead yet another revision of the definition of planet.
A comparison of the trajectories of New Horizon (left) and the Dawn missions (right). (Credit: NASA/JPL, SWRI, Composite- T.Reyes)
A comparison of the trajectories of New Horizons (left) and the Dawn missions (right). (Credit: NASA/JPL, SWRI, Composite- T.Reyes)
Certainly, NASA’s Year of the Dwarf Planet is an unofficial designation and NASA representatives would be quick to emphasize another dozen or more missions that are of importance during the year 2015. However, these two missions could determine the fate of billions or more small bodies just within our galaxy, the Milky Way.
If Ceres and Pluto are studied up close – mission success is never a sure thing – then what is observed could lead to a new, more certain and accepted definition of planet, dwarf planet, and possibly other new definitions.
The New Horizons mission became the first mission of NASA’s New Frontiers program, beginning development in 2001. The probe was launched on January 19, 2006, atop an Atlas V 551 (5 solid rocket boosters plus a third stage). Utilizing more compact and lightweight electronics than its predecessors to the outer planets – Pioneer 10 & 11, and Voyager 1 & 2 – the combination of reduced weight, a powerful launch vehicle, plus a gravity assist from Jupiter has lead to a nine year journey. On December 6, 2014, New Horizons was taken out of hibernation for the last time and now remains powered on until the Pluto encounter.
This "movie" of Pluto and its largest moon, Charon b yNASA's New Horizons spacecraft taken in July 2014 clearly shows that the barycenter -center of mass of the two bodies - resides outside (between) both bodies. The 12 images that make up the movie were taken by the spacecraft’s best telescopic camera – the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) – at distances ranging from about 267 million to 262 million miles (429 million to 422 million kilometers). Charon is orbiting approximately 11,200 miles (about 18,000 kilometers) above Pluto's surface. (Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute)
This “movie” of Pluto and its largest moon, Charon, by NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft taken in July 2014 clearly shows that thebarycenter - the center of mass of the two bodies – resides outside (between) both bodies. The 12 images that make up the movie were taken by the spacecraft’s best telescopic camera – the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) – at distances ranging from about 267 million to 262 million miles (429 million to 422 million kilometers). Charon is orbiting approximately 11,200 miles (about 18,000 kilometers) above Pluto’s surface. (Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute)
The arrival date of New Horizon is July 14, 2015. A telescope called the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) has permitted the commencement of observations while still over 240 million kilometers (150 million miles) from Pluto. The first stellar-like images were taken while still in the Asteroid belt in 2006.
Pluto was once the ninth planet of the Solar System. From its discovery in 1930 by Clyde Tombaugh until 2006, it maintained this status. In that latter year, the International Astronomical Union undertook a debate and then a membership vote that redefined what a planet is. The change occurred 8 months after New Horizons’ launch. There were some upset mission scientists, foremost of which was the principal investigator, Dr. Alan Stern, from the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. In a sense, the rug had been pulled from under them.
A gentleman’s battle ensued between opposing protagonists Dr. Stern andDr. Michael Brown from Caltech. In 2001, Dr. Brown’s research team began to discover Kuiper belt objects (Trans-Neptunian objects) that rivaled the size of Pluto. Pluto suddenly appeared to be one of many small bodies that could likely number in the trillions within just one galaxy – ours. According to Dr. Brown, there could be as many as 200 objects in our Solar System similar to Pluto that, under the old definition, could be defined as planets. Dr. Brown’s work was the straw that broke the camel’s back – that is, it led to the redefinition of planet, and the native of Huntsville, Alabama, went on to write a popular book, How I Killed Pluto and Why It Had It Coming.
Dr. Stern’s story involving Pluto and planetary research is a longer and more circuitous one. Stern was the Executive Director of the Southwest Research Institute’s Space Science and Engineering Division and then accepted the position of Associate Administrator of NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in 2007. Clearly, after a nine year journey, Stern is now fully committed to New Horizons’ close encounter. More descriptions of the two protagonists of the Pluto debate will be included in a follow on story.
Artist’s concept depicting the Dawn spacecraft thrusting with its ion propulsion system as it travels from Vesta (lower right) to Ceres (upper left). The galaxies in the background are part of the Virgo supercluster. Dawn, Vesta and Ceres are currently in the constellation Virgo from the perspective of viewers on Earth. (Image credit: NASA/JPL)
Artist’s concept depicting the Dawn spacecraft thrusting with its ion propulsion system as it travels from Vesta (lower right) to Ceres (upper left). The galaxies in the background are part of the Virgo supercluster. Dawn, Vesta, and Ceres are currently in the constellation Virgo from the perspective of viewers on Earth. (Image credit: NASA/JPL)
The JPL and Orbital Science Corporation developed Dawn space probe began its journey to the main asteroid belt on September 27, 2007. It has used gravity assists and flew by the planet Mars. Dawn spent 14 months surveying Vesta, the 4th largest asteroid of the main belt (assuming Ceres is still considered the largest). While New Horizons has traveled over 30 Astronomical Units (A.U.) – 30 times the distance from the Earth to the Sun – Dawn has remained closer and required reaching a little over 2 A.U. to reach Vesta and now 3 A.U. to reach Ceres.
The Dawn mission had the clear objective of rendezvous and achieving orbit with two asteroids in the main belt between Mars and Jupiter. Dawn was also sent packing the next generation of Ion Propulsion. It has proven its effectiveness very well, having used ion propulsion for the first time to achieve an orbit. Pretty simple, right? Not so fast.
As Dawn was passing critical design reviews during development, the redefinition of planet lofted its second objective – the asteroid 1 Ceres – to a new status. While Pluto was demoted, Ceres was promoted from its scrappy status of biggest of the asteroids – the debris, the leftovers of our solar system’s development – to dwarf planet. Even 4 Vesta is now designated a proto-planet.
Artist rendition of Dawn spacecraft orbiting Vesta(Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech)
Artist rendition of Dawn spacecraft orbiting Vesta. (Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech)
So now the stage is set. Dawn will arrive first at a dwarf planet – Ceres – in April. With a small, low gravity body and ion propulsion, the arrival is slow and cautious. If the two missions fair well and achieve their goals, 2015 is likely to become a pivotal year in the debate over the classification of non-stellar objects throughout the universe.
Just days ago, at the American Geophysical Union Conference in San Francisco, Dr. Stern and team described the status and more details of the goals of New Horizons. Since arriving, more moons of Pluto have been discovered. There is the potential that faint rings exist and Pluto may even harbor an interior ocean due to the tidal forces from its largest moon, Charon. And Dawn mission scientists have seen the prospects for Ceres’ change. Not just the status, the latest Hubble images of Ceres is showing bright spots which could be water ice deposits and could also harbor an internal ocean.
The Solar System is becoming a more crowded place. This picture shows the sizes of dwarf planets Pluto, Ceres, Eris, and Makemake as compared to Earth and Earth's Moon, here called "Luna." None of the distances between objects are to scale. (Credit: NASA)
The Solar System is becoming a more crowded place. This picture shows the sizes of dwarf planets Pluto, Ceres, Eris, and Makemake as compared to Earth and Earth’s Moon, here called “Luna.” None of the distances between objects are to scale. (Credit: NASA)
So other NASA missions notwithstanding, this is the year of the dwarf planet. NASA will provide Humanity with its first close encounters with the most numerous of small round – by their self-gravity – bodies in the Universe. They are now called dwarf planets but ask Dr. Stern and company, the public, and many other planetary scientists and you will discover that the jury is still out.

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